Romanization spreading on historical interregional networks in Northern Tunisia
PID (if applicable): doi:10.1007/s41109-022-00492-w
Understand the Romanization Process of Northern Africa
Object of Research and Objective
The research topic of this project is at the interface between mathematics and archaeology and is based on an interdisciplinary collaboration between scientists from Zuse Institute Berlin, Mathematics Institute at Free University Berlin and German Archaeological Institute (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut). Our aim is to develop a novel network-based approach for inferring a well-defined range of socio-physical/historical phenomena from spatio-temporal data prevalent in Archaeology. The resulting framework is tailored to model processes such as innovation spreading, migrations and settlement development based on real-world 4D archaeological data.
In particular, within this project we focus on the archaeological evidence for the Romanization of Northern Africa. The starting point for this process is in 146 BC, when the region known nowadays as Tunisia, was annexed by Rome in the aftermath of the Third Punic War. The African province expanded further in the following centuries, with its greatest extent around 117 AD. Apart from an expected gradually developed adaptation due to the cultural exchange, some changes were actively introduced and enforced by the Roman conquerors, such as administrative structures, infrastructure and architecture.
For the romanization process only fragmented information is available. Based on this data we infer the interriogonal network and a temporal spreading rate. To do so, we have first to divide the cities into subregions based on expert knowledge. To infer the interriogonal network we are using PMALA.
- Extract archaeological data into a matrix: each row corresponds to a city and each column to a time-frame, the entry tells us the status of a city for a given time-frame.
- Divide cities based on archaeological knowledge into 4 subregions. Subregions are shaped by features of the landscape, climate, economy, culture and politics.
- Compute the number of romanized cities of each region for each time-frame. This is the main data data, that is passed to the algorithm.
- Fit a spreading curve of an SI spreading with temporal infection rate to the data with PMALA.
- Extract the best solutions that PMALA found.
- Compare the top 5%
Numerical Analysis (wikidata:Q11216)
Excel Files with archaeological data from Archaeology to Mathematics.
Metapopulation SI model with temporal infection rate.
Short Description of Equations:
Constrained Minimisation Problem:
Short Description of Constrained Minimisation Problem:
- Time: interval of length of 50 years
- Space: divide cities into subregions
|prescaled Metroplois-adjusted Langevin algorithm (PMALA)
|Solve the inverse Problem
|n_PMALA : number of time steps
|t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE)
|Analysis of Simulation
|perplexity = 30
|Python, C, Fortran
|Python, distutils, zlib, gcc, gfortran
|ZIB z1 Cluster
|Intel(R) Xeon(R), AMD EPYC
|104 (CPU), 36 (GPU)
|4348 (CPU), 2072 (GPU)
|list of matrices and vectors
We are using a stochastic algorithm. Each simulations is different. However, we run many simulations to obtain a reproducible result.
The simulation time is almost constant.
Reproducibility of Results
See mathematical reproducibility. The best solutions are almost the same.
Reproducibility on original Hardware
Reproducibility on other Hardware
a) Serial Computation
b) Parallel Computation
a) similar model parameters (other initial and boundary values)
b) other models
The following abbreviations are used in the document to indicate/resolve IDs:
doi: DOI / https://dx.doi.org/
sw: swMATH / https://swmath.org/software/